This article compares the Persian Empire with Roman Empire/ Persian Empire Vs Roman Empire

Both the Persian Empire as well as the Roman Empire is counted to date as some of the major Empires to have ever existed. There were many Persian empires with the greatest 3 Persian empires being Achaemenid Empire 550BC, Parthian Empire 247 – 224 AD and Sassanid Empire 224 – AD respectively.

Persian Empire Vs Roman Empire

On comparing the Roman empire with the Achaemenid Empire, the Achaemenids were fairer towards its own nationals, they banned slavery, the workers got paid, everyone could believe what they wanted and think what they wanted, the empires which the Achaemenids defeated had the right to retain their own religion and language,

Persian Empire Vs Roman Empire

The Achaemenid Empire ruled more regions or empires as compared to the Roman empire, by landmass also the Achaemenid’s reached 8 Million Km2 while the Romans reached 6.5 Million Km2. The Roman infantry would be stronger than the Achaemenid Infantry, but not the cavalry.

Medo Persian Empire Timeline

On the other hand, if the Roman Empire was to be compared to the Sassanids, then the Sassanids were mostly like the Achaemenids in-laws. But the Sassanids had worked upon their cavalry and had improved it. In that age, the Sassanids had the worlds finest or the most skilled cavalry.

Rome vs Persia Comparison

They were unmatched against any other cavalry, the cavalry was named Cataphract and was the world’s first Heavy cavalry, the Achaemenids used Immortals as Infantry, but now the Sassanid Empire used Immortals as Cavalry, The Cavalry Immortals were called ”Clibanarii”. The Sassanids and Romans actually had wars with each other ”Roman–Persian Wars” 92 BC – 627 AD.

The Roman legionaries could not stand against the Sassanids Cataphract charges. So in Army, the Romans had better Infantry while the Sassanids had better Cavalry. Overall both these dynamic empires differed from each other on some technical grounds such as the following:

Serial No.

Point of Difference

Persian Empire

Roman Empire



The Persians didn’t indulge in slavery. In fact, they paid their workers.

The Romans used slaves for constructions



The Persians official religion was Zoroastrianism.

The Roman’s Official religion was Paganism



The Persians spoke Old Persian and later Middle Persian

The Romans spoke Latin



The Persian Empire was a monarchy

The Roman empire was a Republic


Freedom of religion

The Persians had freedom for religion.

If the people of Rome had a different religion than Paganism, they had to pay Taxes or Get Killed or get themselves converted.



The Persians used trousers. As a matter of fact, Trousers were invented by the Persians.

The Romans used skirts.